Gas Laws One of the most amazing things about gases is that, despite wide differences in chemical properties, all the gases more or less obey the gas laws. The gas laws deal with how gases behave with respect to pressure, volume, temperature, and amount.
All of the gas laws rely on some basic assumptions that are made about gases, and together they constitute what it means for a gas to be in an ideal state. In an ideal state All gas particles are in constant, random motion. All collisions between gas particles are perfectly elastic meaning that the kinetic energy of the system is conserved.
The volume of the gas molecules in a gas is negligible. Gases have no intermolecular attractive or repulsive forces. The average kinetic energy of the gas is directly proportional to its Kelvin temperature and is the same for all gases at a specified temperature.
Only four measurable properties are used to describe a gas: The quantity amount of the gas is usually expressed in moles n.
The temperature, T, of gases must always be converted to the Kelvin temperature scale the absolute temperature scale. The volume, V, of a gas is usually given in liters. Finally, the pressure, P, of a gas is usually expressed in atmospheres. Example Which of the following statements is not true of ideal gases?
The volume occupied by gas particles is only significant at very low pressures. Gas molecules occupy an insignificant volume compared to the volume of the container that holds them.
The particles of a gas move in random straight line paths until a collision occurs. The collisions that occur between gas particles are considered elastic.
At a given temperature, all gas molecules within a sample possess the same average kinetic energy. Explanation In this example, choice 1 is incorrect. Choices 2, 3, 4, and 5 all describe an ideal gas. Choice 1 makes an incorrect assumption: The volume only becomes significant if gas particles collide often, increasing the chances that intermolecular forces will hold them together.
Measuring the Pressure of a Gas Gas pressure is a gauge of the number and force of collisions between gas particles and the walls of the container that holds them. The SI unit for pressure is the pascal Pabut other pressure terms include atmospheres atmsmillimeters of mercury mmHgand torr. The following is a list of all of the standard pressure in every unit for pressure.
Memorize these for the exam so you can convert units where necessary:Chemistry Chemistry is the Science of Matter; The branch of the natural sciences dealing with the Composition of Substances and their Properties and Reactions. Biology. Glossary of Chemistry Terms (wiki) Chemistry Tools - Science Equipment - Microscopes Khan Chemistry (videos) - ACS Reactions (youtube) Chemistry Stack Exchange is a question and answer site for scientists.
Chemistry / Study of Gas Laws All gases show uniform behavior under similar conditions of temperature and pressure irrespective of their chemical nature or color or odor. This forms the basis of the Gas Laws. ***Includes Practice Test Questions*** Get the test prep help you need to be successful on the AP Chemistry test.
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Addition polymer A polymer made by the combining together of small unsaturated molecules of the same compound. Addition reaction A reaction in which the double or triple bond of an unsaturated compound opens [ ].
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