CHF describes a cluster of symptoms, not a single disease. The American College of Cardiology and the American Heart Association define heart failure according to how it has progressed. This classification is not meant to replace the New York Heart Association functional classification system but rather complement it. When the kidneys are deprived of a good blood supply, they struggle to filter fluids to make urine.
Specializations[ edit ] All cardiologists study the disorders of the heart, but the study of adult and child heart disorders are through different training pathways. Therefore, an adult cardiologist often simply called "cardiologist" is inadequately trained to take care of children, and pediatric cardiologists are not trained to take care of adult heart disease.
The surgical aspects are not included in cardiology and are in the domain of cardiothoracic surgery. For example, coronary artery bypass surgery CABGcardiopulmonary bypass and valve replacement are surgical procedures performed by surgeons, not cardiologists. However the insertion of stents and pacemakers are performed by cardiologists Adult cardiology[ edit ] Cardiology is a specialty of internal medicine.
To be a cardiologist in the United Statesa three-year residency in internal medicine is followed by a three-year fellowship in cardiology. It is possible to specialize further in a sub-specialty. Hypertension essay outline sub-specialties in the United States by the ACGME are cardiac electrophysiologyechocardiographyinterventional cardiologyand nuclear cardiology.
Cardiac electrophysiology Cardiac electrophysiology is the science of elucidating, diagnosing, and treating the electrical activities of the heart. The term is usually used to describe studies of such phenomena by invasive intracardiac catheter recording of spontaneous activity as well as of cardiac responses to programmed electrical stimulation PES.
These studies are performed to assess complex arrhythmiaselucidate symptoms, evaluate abnormal electrocardiogramsassess risk of developing arrhythmias in the future, and design treatment. These procedures increasingly include therapeutic methods typically radiofrequency ablationor cryoablation in addition to diagnostic and prognostic procedures.
Other therapeutic modalities employed in this field include antiarrhythmic drug therapy and implantation of pacemakers and automatic implantable cardioverter-defibrillators AICD.
Sometimes a series of EPS drug trials must be conducted to enable the cardiologist to select the one regimen for long-term treatment that best prevents or slows the development of VT or VF following PES.
Such studies may also be conducted in the presence of a newly implanted or newly replaced cardiac pacemaker or AICD. Clinical cardiac electrophysiology Clinical cardiac electrophysiology is a branch of the medical specialty of cardiology and is concerned with the study and treatment of rhythm disorders of the heart.
Cardiologists with expertise in this area are usually referred to as electrophysiologists. Electrophysiologists are trained in the mechanism, function, and performance of the electrical activities of the heart.
Electrophysiologists work closely with other cardiologists and cardiac surgeons to assist or guide therapy for heart rhythm disturbances arrhythmias.
They are trained to perform interventional and surgical procedures to treat cardiac arrhythmia.
The training required to become an electrophysiologist is long and requires 7 to 8 years after medical school in the U. Three years of internal medicine residency, three years of Clinical Cardiology fellowship, and one to two in most instances years of clinical cardiac electrophysiology.
Cardiogeriatrics Cardiogeriatrics or geriatric cardiology is the branch of cardiology and geriatric medicine that deals with the cardiovascular disorders in elderly people.Powerful Essays words | ( pages) | Preview High Blood Pressure A meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies reveals that increased consumption of fruit and vegetables from less than three to more than five servings/day correlates with a 17% reduction in coronary heart disease risk (He, Nowson, Lucas, & MacGregor, ).
Essay on High Blood Pressure. High blood pressure is unlike any other disease.
It can be extremely serious, but normally does not affect how you feel day to day. High blood pressure is also called hypertension. High blood pressure in the simplest terms means the increase of blood pressure due to the malfunctioning of one or several of the.
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It unfold across the world inside a wide range of formats and translations and appeared on television as dubbed serials. Results from a new study may lead to approval of what could be the first drug that ameliorates potentially deadly reactions in children with severe peanut allergies.
Hay fever or allergic rhinitis is an allergy that causes sneezing, watery eyes, and itching, often in response to pollen. Find tips here for preventing or avoiding it, and learn about drug. Hypertension is commonly divided into two categories of primary and secondary hypertension. In primary hypertension, often called essential hypertension is characterised by chronic elevation in blood pressure that occurs without the elevation of BP pressure results from some other disorder, such as kidney disease.